Leed credits

Leed v4 credits

LEED (Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design) is an internationally recognised green building certification system that provides third-party verification that a building or community was designed and built using strategies aimed at improving performance across all the metrics that matter most: energy savings, water efficiency, CO2 emissions reduction, improved indoor environmental quality and stewardship of resources and sensitivity to their impacts.
Developed by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), LEED provides building owners and operators a concise framework for identifying and implementing practical and measurable green building design, construction, operations and maintenance solutions.
 
LEED promotes a whole-building approach to sustainability by recognising performance in key areas. LEED points are awarded on a 110-point scale, and credits are weighted to reflect their potential environmental impacts.

Lead v4 scoring criteria

Please select a scoring criteria below and read more about number of points available when using steel products, applicable Ruukki products and references.

Location and transportation (LT credit)

Credit 3
High priority site - Brownfield remediation
2 points

Aim and requirements 

To rehabilitate damaged sites where development is complicated by environmental contamination and to reduce pressure on undeveloped land. 

Our contribution

As with urban sites, contaminated (brownfield) site developments can benefit from the use of lightweight structures that require less ground works and large scale prefabrication using steel components which can reduce disturbance of the polluted ground. In some cases this can lead to more cost effective remediation solutions to deal with the contamination. 

Relevant Ruukki products

Reference standards and guidelines

  • U.S. EPA. Definition of Brownfields. EPA Sustainable Redevelopment of Brownfields Program. Visit www.epa.gov/brownfields
  • ASTM E1527-05. Phase I Environmental Site Assessment, ASTM International. Visit www.astm.org
  • ASTM E1903-97, Phase II Environmental Site Assessment, effective 2002. ASTM International. Visit www.astm.org
  • Brownfields Technology Support Center. Visit www.brownfieldstsc.org
  • Environmental Law Institute, Brownfields Center. Visit www.brownfieldscenter.org
  • National Institutes of Health, National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, Superfund Basic Research Program. Visit www.niehs.nih.gov/
  • New York State Department of Health, Guidance for Evaluating Vapor Intrusion. Visit www.health.state.ny.us/
  • Preliminary Remediation Goals for EPA Region 9. Visit www.epa.gov
  • U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, Technical Approaches to Characterizing and Cleaning Up Brownfield Sites. Visit www.epa.gov
  • U.S. EPA, Sustainable Redevelopment of Brownfields Program. Visit www.epa.gov/brownfields
  • ASTM Standard Practice E1739-95: Risk-Based Corrective Action Applied at Petroleum Release Sites, ASTM International. Visit www.astm.org
  • EPA OSWER Directive 9610.17: Use of Risk-Based Decision-Making in UST Correction Action Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Underground Storage Tanks. Visit www.epa.gov/

Credit 4
Surrounding density and diverse uses
1 - 5 points

Aim and requirements 

To channel development to urban areas with existing infrastructure, protect greenfields and preserve habitat and natural resources. 

Our contribution

 Using steel structures and components can help address many of the problems of building in urban centres. Engineered, prefabricated steel components can be speedily installed reducing construction time and disruption on site. 

Furthermore, the flexibility that steel design offers enables difficult urban sites to be more readily exploited. The wide spanning capabilities, fast track construction, integration of services, just in time delivery, reduced storage requirements, less disruption on cramped sites, and lighter weight of steel buildings leading to smaller foundations, all contribute to more workable steel solutions on difficult urban sites. In addition, many steel technologies such as steel pile foundations and roof and wall cladding require little removal of waste from site.

Relevant solutions

Relevant solutions

Sustainable Site (SS credit)

Credit 2
Site development - Protect or restore habitat
1-2 points

Aim and requirements 

To conserve existing natural areas and restore damaged areas to provide habitat and promote biodiversity. 

Our contribution

To achieve this credit the disturbance due to development must be contained within strict limits. 
The use of steel structures and components allows much more prefabrication. A key feature of prefabrication is that much of the process is removed from the site to controlled factory conditions. Reducing the amount of time spent on site can lead to less detrimental impacts on the site and locality. The use of steel provides the opportunity for management systems that reduce site disturbance. 

Relevant Ruukki products

Credit 5
Heat island reduction
1 points

Aim and requirements 

To reduce heat islands to minimise impacts on microclimates and human and wildlife habitats. Use roofing materials with a solar reflectance index (SRI) equal to or greater than 78 in low-sloped roofs and 29 in steep-sloped roofs. for a minimum of 75% of the roof surface. 

Our contribution

Pre-finished roofing systems with required SRI levels are available from Ruukki.  

Relevant Ruukki products

Reference standards and guidelines

  • ASTM Standards. Visit http://www.astm.org
  • ASTM E1980–01, Standard Practice for Calculating Solar Reflectance Index of Horizontal and Low-Sloped Opaque Surfaces
  • ASTM E408–71(1996)e1, Standard Test Methods for Total Normal Emittance of Surfaces Using Inspection-Meter Techniques
  • ASTM E903–96, Standard Test Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance, and Transmittance of Materials Using Integrating Spheres
  • ASTM E1918–97, Standard Test Method for Measuring Solar Reflectance of Horizontal and Low-Sloped Surfaces in the Field
  • ASTM C1371–04, Standard Test Method for Determination of Emittance of Materials Near Room Temperature Using Portable Emissometers
  • ASTM C1549–04, Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient Temperature Using a Portable Solar Reflectometer
  • Cool Roof Rating Council. Visit http://www.coolroofs.org
  • U.S. EPA, ENERGY STAR Roofing Products. Visit www.energystar.gov/
  • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Heat Island Group, Cool Roofs. 

Innovation (in credit)

Credit 1
Innovation
1-5 points

Aim and requirements 

Credits for Innovation may be awarded for strategies that go significantly beyond what is required in the other LEED credits or for new ideas not covered elsewhere. 

Our contribution

Steel may contribute some innovative solutions – possible options include design for future demountability and reusability, use of composite members to reduce material volume, use of innovative steel structural solutions that reduce material volume, and integration of structure and services. 

Creative use of prefabrication to maximise environmental benefits and improve Health and Safety of the workforce is another option. Moving much of the process into more controlled and comfortable factory conditions enables safety requirements to be more easily met and policed, and healthy and comfortable working conditions are more readily maintained. 

Relevant Ruukki products

Energy and atmosphere (EA credit)

Prerequisite 2
Minimum energy performance
Required

Aim and requirements 

To establish the minimum level of energy efficiency for the proposed building and systems to reduce environmental and economic impacts associated with excessive energy use. 

The prerequisite requires that all LEED certified buildings achieve a base level of energy efficiency. 

Demonstrate a 5 % improvement in the proposed building performance rating for new buildings, or a 3 % improvement in the proposed building performance rating for major renovations to existing buildings, compared with the baseline building performance rating. 

Calculate the baseline building performance rating according to the building performance rating method in Appendix G of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2010 (with errata) using a energy simulation model, eg. IDA-ICE 4.0.

Our contribution

Meeting the base standards is generally cost- effective and good business practice. Steel structures can be readily designed to achieve the base levels of energy efficiency required and score additional points depending on the detail design of the building, its location and fuel type used. Steel frame offices that accommodate high levels of insulation and flexible servicing strategies to maximise efficiency. 

The energy calculations required for this credit entail the use of thermal modeling software to enable designers to investigate, optimise and demonstrate the full annual energy performance. These models allow the effects of thermal mass to be accurately modelled to demonstrate and maximise the potential benefits. Thermal mass is important in buildings for its heat storage capacity, particularly in the cooling season. However, it is not the absolute amount of mass that is most important but how well it is distributed, and how well it is connected with the occupied spaces. Studies have shown that sufficient thermal mass can readily be incorporated in steel frame office buildings to reduce cooling loads, and that the structural framing makes little difference to cooling loads. The designer should focus on ensuring that the mass which is present for structural requirements is used effectively for cooling. This means careful specification of finishes to ensure that the mass is not insulated from the internal spaces.  
 

Relevant Ruukki products

Reference standards and guidelines

  • ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1–2010: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential. American National Standards Institute, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.
  • ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings 2014. Visit www.ashrae.org
  • ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Warehouses and Self Storage Buildings 2010. Visit www.ashrae.org
  • ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings 2010. Visit www.ashrae.org
  • New Building Institute, Advanced Buildings™ Core Performance™ Guide.
  • ENERGY STAR® Buildings Upgrade Manual. Visit www.energystar.gov/
  • ENERGY STAR® Program, Target Finder Rating Tool. Visit www.energystar.gov/
  • Advanced Buildings, Technologies and Practices. Visit www.advancedbuildings.org
  • American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. Visit www.aceee.org
  • New Buildings Institute, Inc. Visit www.newbuildings.org
  • U.S. Department of Energy, Building Energy Codes Program. Visit www.energycodes.gov
  • U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Visit www.eere.energy.gov
  • U.S. EPA, Combined Heat and Power Partnership. Visit www.epa.gov/chp
  • ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1–2010 User’s Manual (ASHRAE, 2010). 

Credit 1
Enhanced commissioning
2-6 points

Projects pursuing LEED Certification can be awarded with an additional Innovation credit, provided that a solution verifying the functionality of the building envelope is used and the solution is not included in the EAc1 Enhanced commissioning credit requirements. 
 
Ruukki’s building envelope air tightness testing can be considered more comprehensive than the typical credit requirements for verifying the functionality of the building envelope. However, as no listing of the solutions that have received the credit exists, there is no guarantee that the credit will be awarded. Each candidate’s eligibility for the extra credit is considered individually by the USGBC.
 
The measures required by the EAc1 must be taken and the required documents must be formulated. Additionally, an extensive account of air tightness measurements, reports of their results, as well as an account of the corrective actions carried out based on the results must be provided in English.

Credit 2
Optimise energy performance
1-18 points

To achieve increasing levels of energy performance beyond the prerequisite standard to reduce environmental and economic harms associated with excessive energy use. Analyze energy performance for the whole building by energy simulation and demonstrate % of improvement in the proposed building energy performance compared to the baseline building. 1 point is achieved in new construction (NC) by 6 % of improvement and in "Core & Shell" category 1 point is achieved by 3 % of improvement in energy performance. Maximum 18 points are achieved when energy performance improvement is 50% in NC or 47 % in C&R. Improvement in energy performance is calculated by energy simulation. 

In order to include air tightness in a building’s overall energy efficiency, the Exceptional Calculation Method must be used. For USBC’s instructions for factoring in air tightness, please refer to the CIR ruling on 3 November 2013.
 
The results of air tightness tests commissioned by the manufacturer must be delivered and the test methods must be compliant with ASHRAE’s Standard Test Method for Determining Rate of Air Leakage (ASTM E 283).
 
Use the typical air leakage rates provided by ASHRAE in your baseline model. When modelling the proposed building, use a realistic value that can be proven to be achievable through calculations or other documentation.
 
Use ASHRAE’s requirements for ventilation outdoor air flow both in the baseline model simulation and when simulating the proposed building.
 
Provide clear, explicit documentation for all steps taken to achieve the required air tightness and the results of the blower door test (ASTM E 1827, ASTM E 779).
 
Provide an account of the cost savings of having an improved air tightness compared to the baseline model.
 
Additionally, the results of the manufacturer’s wall structure air tightness testing as well as measurements taken from the completed building must be included in the LEED credit report.

Credit 5
Renewable Energy Production
1-3 points

Aim and requirements

Use on-site renewable energy systems to offset building energy costs. Calculate project performance by expressing the energy produced by the renewable systems as a percentage of the building’s annual energy cost and use the table below to determine the number of points achieved.
 
Use the building annual energy cost calculated in EAc2 Credit Optimize Energy Performance or the U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey database to determine the estimated electricity use. The minimum renewable energy percentage for each point threshold is as follows:

Percentage Renewable Energy Points (except Core & Shell) Points (Core & Shell)
1 % 1
3 % 2
5 % 3
10 % -


Our contribution

Solar systems for walls are available from Ruukki.

Relevant Ruukki products

Materials and Resources (MR credit)

Prerequisite 2
Construction and demolition waste management planning required

Credit 5
Construction and demolition waste management
1-2 points

Aim and requirements 

To reduce construction and demolition waste disposed of in landfills and incineration by recovering, reusing, and recycling materials. The prerequisite requires a waste management plan and diversion goal setting at least for five materials. Credits for waste management is achieved by recycling or salvaging nonhazardous construction and demolition waste materials or optionally reduction of total waste amount to required level. Calculations of recycled materials can be by weight or volume but must be consistent throughout. 

Specify whether materials will be separated or comingled and describe the diversion strategies planned for project. Describe where materials will be taken and how the recycling facility will process the material. Provide final report detailing all major waste streams generated, including disposal and diversion rates. Land-clearing debris is not considered construction, demolition, or renovation waste.

Credit requirements:
Option 1: Divert 50% and three material streams, 1 point
Divert 75% and four material streams, 2 points OR
Option 2: No more than 12,2 kilograms of waste per square meter of the building´s floor area is generated, 2 points 

Our contribution

Prefabrication results in minimum waste at the construction site. Waste materials originating from construction, renovation and demolition can be sorted and steel scrap is returned to the steel industry to be reused. All packaking materials are recyclable and their amounts are available before product delivery. The waste recycling service provided by Ruukki can be considered as beneficial for the implementation of recycling. Additionally, Ruukki’s personnel are responsible for following the waste management plan in their own daily work. 

Credit 1
Building life cycle impact reduction
2-5 points

Aim and requirements 

To extend the life cycle of existing building stock, conserve resources, retain cultural resources, reduce waste and reduce environmental impacts of new buildings as they relate to materials manufacturing and transport. For credit achievement reuse or salvage building materials in existing building or demonstrate environmental impact reduction by life-cycle assessment for new construction. 

The credit offers up to five points for extending the life of existing buildings thus conserving materials that would have been used for a new building. To score one point, a minimum 25% of the existing building structure (including structural floor and roof decking) and envelope (the exterior skin and framing, excluding window assemblies and non structural roofing material) should be maintained. More points are available if a greater proportion is reused. 

For new construction three points are awarded if life cycle analysis (LCA) demonstrates minimum of 10% reduction in environmental impacts in at least three of the six impact categories, one of which is global warming potential (GWP). No impact category in LCA may increase by more than 5% compared to the baseline building. Calculate new construction and baseline building environmental impacts in all impact categories in at least 60 years service life of the building. 

Our contribution

Steel frame buildings are flexible and are suitable for reuse. They are also often readily extendable and adaptable to new uses. In refurbishment, modifying and reinforcing of existing structures is an important attribute of steel structures. There are many examples of steel frame structures that have been adapted for a new use, while in some cases steel structures have been dismantled and reassembled in a new location. In addition, the lightweight characteristics of steel structures means that often additional floors can be added to existing buildings, extending their usefulness.  

Environmental declarations, EPD, are available for Ruukki construction products. EPDs are essential to whole building life cycle assessment. Ruukki´s EPDs contain environmental information especially from our own production and product environmental impacts. EPDs are based on international standards.  

Relevant Ruukki products


Environmental product declarations

Credit 2
Building Product Disclosure and Optimization - Environmental product declaration
1-2 points

Aim and requirements

To encourage the use of products for which life-cycle information is available and that have environmentally, economically, and socially preferable life-cycle impacts.

Use at least 20 different permanently installed products sourced at least five different manufacturers that have environmental product declaration. Product specific type III EPD can credit one point. Two points are awarded when products demonstrate environmental impact reduction below industry average in at least three impact categories.

Our contribution

Environmental product declarations, EPD, are available for Ruukki construction products. EPDs are products specific third party verified type III environmental declarations. EPDs contain information of products environmental impacts in specified impact categories.

Environmental product declarations

Credit 3
Building Product Disclosure and Optimization - Sourcing of Raw Materials
1-2 points

Aim and requirements

To encourage the use of products for which life-cycle information is available and that have environmentally, economically, and socially preferable life-cycle impacts. To reward for selecting products verified to have been extracted and sourced in responsible manner.

One point is achieved by selecting products for value at least 25%, by cost, that meet one of the responsible extraction criteria, eg. material reuse or recycled content.

Our contribution

Many steel components that are recovered from demolition or refurbishment projects are suitable for reuse. This includes structural sections, cladding, studs and smaller components. Since steel components often have a relatively high value compared to other building materials, they can contribute considerably to achieving this credit. 

Estimated recycled content for steel products such as piles, beams, columns, trusses, load bearing sheets and steel claddings is 25 percent.

Recycled content Mineral Wool Panels

Structural part Weight distribution
Mineral wool 68.50 %
Hot-dip galvanised steel 29.70 %
Coating 0.60 %
Adhesive 1.10 %

As the estimated recycled content in the steel products used by Ruukki is 25 percent, the overall recycled material content of the wall panel is 7 percent.
Recycled content Life Panels

Ruukki® life panel, which is manufactured by Ruukki Construction, contributes in the achievement of LEED certification thanks to the use of recycled materials.

Structural part Weight distribution
Mineral wool, glass wool 57.50 %
Hot-dip galvanised steel 38.30 %
Coating 0.80 %
Adhesive 1.40 %

The mineral wool -based insulation material contains 70 % recycled glass. The proportion of recycled material in steel components is an estimated 25 %. Thus, the recycled material content in the product as a whole is 50 %.
Recycled content PIR panels

Structural part Weight distribution
PIR insulation 34.30 %
Hot-dip galvanised steel 64.20 %
Coating 1.6 %

As the estimated recycled content in the steel products used by Ruukki is 25 percent, the overall recycled material content of the wall panel is 16 percent. 

Credit 4
Building Product Disclosure and Optimization - Material Ingredient Reporting
1-2 points

Aim and requirements

To encourage the use of products for which life-cycle information is available and that have environmentally, economically, and socially preferable life-cycle impacts. Credit achievement has three options.

One point is achieved by using at least 20 different permanently installed products from at least five different manufacturers that demonstrate chemical inventory of the product to at least 0,1 %.

Second point is achieved by selecting products that contain less hazardous substances. This credit is achieved for example selecting products that meet REACH criteria.

Our contribution

Material ingredients for Ruukki products are available down to 0,1% in Environmental product declarations, EPDs. Ruukki has made inventory for raw materials and they fulfill REACH requirements. No product contains substances under REACH or included on the candidate list (SVHC).


Environmental product declations

INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (EQ)

Credit 2
Low-emitting materials
1-3 points

Aim and requirements 

To reduce concentrations of chemical contaminants that can damage air quality, human health, productivity, and the environment. Requirements cover volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions into indoor air and the VOC content of materials. 

Our contribution

Steel components are usually painted off-site under controlled conditions. This reduces emissions into the building. Low emitting paints and coatings can be used on steel to meet this credit requirement. 

Ruukki SPA sandwich panels and colour coated buildings products hold Finnish Emission classification of building materials M1 certificate. Ruukki products have been tested for indoor air emissions and they fulfill the high criteria of M1 classification. Certificate available on request. 

Relevant Ruukki products

Referenced standards and guidelines

  • California Department of public Health, CDPH, Standard Method v1.1-2010 for testing and evaluation of VOC emissions from indoor sources using environmental chambers. Visit www.cdph.ca.gov/
  • German AgBB Testing and Evaluation Scheme 2010 for VOC emissions of construction products. Visit www.eco-institut.de/en/
  • South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 1113, Architectural Coatings. Visit www.aqmd.gov
  • South Coast Air Quality Management District. Visit www.aqmd.gov

Credit 7
Daylight
1-3 points

Aim and requirements 

To provide for the building occupants with a connection between indoor spaces and the outdoors through the introduction of daylight and views into the regularly occupied areas of the building. 

One point is available if acceptable daylight level is achieved for at least 55 % of all regularly occupied spaces. More points are available if the proportion of regularly occupied spaces is greater. 

Our contribution

Steel construction is favourable when optimising windows and other daylight solutions and the whole architecture which means that this credit is easy to achieve.

Referenced standards and guidelines

  • ASTM D1003 - 07e1, Standard Test Method for Haze and Luminous Transmittance of Transparent Plastics. Visit www.astm.org
  • Analysis of the Performance of Students in Daylit Schools. Visit www.innovativedesign.net/
  • The Art of Daylighting. Visit www.edcmag.com/
  • New Buildings Institute’s Productivity and Building Science Program. Visit www.newbuildings.org/
  • Radiance Software.
  • Whole Building Design Guide, Daylighting. Visit www.wbdg.org/
  • Whole Building Design Guide, Electric Lighting Controls .Visit www.wbdg.org/
  • Architectural Lighting, second edition by M. David Eganand Victor Olgyay(McGraw-Hill, 2002).
  • Daylighting Design, by Benjamin Evans, Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data, (McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1997).
  • Daylighting Performance and Design, by Gregg D. Ander (John Wiley & Sons, 1997).
  • Daylighting for Sustainable Design, by Mary Guzowski (McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1999).
  • Sustainable Building Technical Manual, Public Technology Institute (Public Technology Institute, 1996). Visit www.pti.org

Credit 8
Quality views
1-2 points

Aim and requirements 

To provide building occupants a connection to the outdoors through the introduction of daylight and views into the regularly occupied areas of the building. 

One point is available if 75% of all regularly occupied spaces have a view to outside. 

Our contribution

The adaptability of steel structures, cladding and partitioning can provide the designer with flexibility and scope to provide good daylighting, and the maintenance of unobstructed views, thus meeting the requirements of credits of daylight and quality views.

Referenced standards and guidelines

  • The Art of Daylighting. Visit www.edcmag.com/
  • New Buildings Institute’s Productivity and Building Science Program. Visit www.newbuildings.org/
  • Radiance Software.
  • Whole Building Design Guide, Daylighting. Visit www.wbdg.org/
  • Whole Building Design Guide, Electric Lighting Controls. Visit www.wbdg.org/
  • Sustainable Building Technical Manual, Public Technology Institute (Public Technology Institute, 1996). Visit www.pti.org